What is the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis?

The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the vectors (tsetse flies), as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment.

What disease does Trypanosoma Rhodesiense cause?

Sleeping sickness is caused by two types of parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosomoa brucei gambiense. T b rhodesiense causes the more severe form of the illness. Tsetse flies carry the infection.

What is the difference between TB Gambiense and TB Rhodesiense?

While often considered together, Gambiense and Rhodesiense HAT are clinically and epidemiologically different diseases [10]. T.b. gambiense HAT is a chronic disease, whereas T.b. rhodesiense is characterized by an acute disease progression. If left untreated, both forms of HAT are fatal.

What are three diseases caused by Trypanosoma?

African trypanosomiasis
Other names Sleeping sickness, African sleeping sickness
Trypanosoma forms in a blood smear
Specialty Infectious disease
Symptoms Stage 1: Fevers, headaches, itchiness, joint pains Stage 2: Trouble sleeping, confusion, poor coordination

What is the geographic location of Trypanosoma Rhodesiense?

rhodesiense (East African sleeping sickness) is found in focal areas of eastern and southeastern Africa.

What disease is also known as sleeping sickness in horses?

Western equine encephalitis (WEE) is a viral disease carried by mosquitoes. WEE occurs in the western parts of the United States, including Iowa and Canada. WEE causes “sleeping sickness” in horses.

How is trypanosomiasis diagnosed?

CSF testing is done after a parasitologic diagnosis has been made by microscopic examination of blood, lymph node aspirates, chancre fluid, or bone marrow or when indications of infection are present that justify a lumbar puncture (e.g., clinical signs and symptoms of sleeping sickness or strong serologic suspicion).

What is the infective stage of Trypanosoma brucei Rhodesiense?

Infection occurs in two stages, an initial haemolymphatic stage followed by a meningoencephalitic stage after the trypanosomes invade the central nervous system (CNS). However, many of the signs and symptoms are common to both stages, making it difficult to distinguish between the two stages by clinical features alone.

Who is the reservoir host for Trypanosoma brucei Rhodesiense?

Hosts and Vectors Humans are considered the main reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, but this species can also be found in animals, including primates and ungulates. Domestic cattle are thought to be the most epidemiologically-relevant animal reservoir of T. b. rhodesiense.

What is the prognosis of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense disease?

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense disease usually presents as an acute febrile illness with poor demarcation between stages, leading to death within months. Suramin is used to treat stage I T. b. rhodesiense, and adverse drug reactions although frequent are usually mild and reversible.

What is the difference between TB gambiense and TB rhodesiense?

T. b. gambiense is endemic in western and central Africa, while T. b. rhodesiense is restricted to eastern and southern Africa.

What is the global prevalence of EB rhodesiense (East African sleeping sickness)?

b. rhodesiense (East African sleeping sickness) is found in focal areas of eastern and southeastern Africa. Each year a few hundred cases are reported to the World Health Organization. Over 95% of the cases of human infection occur in Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, and Zambia. Animals are the primary reservoir of infection.

What is African trypanosomiasis?

African trypanosomiasis is a disease of sub-Saharan Africa, and after a lapse of control measures after the 1960s the disease had seen a resurgence and was classified as a neglected disease.